Evolution of Mankind through ages: A journey from apes to Human Beings

A process of origin of species – An evolutionary process that led to the formation of modern human beings, i.e. Homo sapiens as a different species from the great apes.

Evolution of traits:  time and Characteristics 

To become a distinct species, the process involved the development of many characteristics like Bi – pedals language brain development. It took primates around 85 million years to diverge from mammals. 

Shared Ancestry and place of Origin

Monkeys and human beings are primates, but human beings have not been descended from monkeys. Our ancestors were chimpanzees that lived 6 to 8 million years ago. 

How does paleontology work as a tool in Evolution?

Apidima I Homo sapiens fossil was found around 210,000 years ago, and Apidima II was found around 170,000 years ago. I was confirming human evolution. Paleontology helps to understand the development of modern human beings by the process of “Homization” by reconstructing the evolutionary concordance within the family Hominidae.

Evolutionary process:

Family Hominidae diverged from the family Hylobatidae about 15 – 20 million years ago. Hominina (ancestors of Human Beings) and Panina (chimpanzees) separated around 4 – 7 million years ago. The changes in morphology development, physiology characterized the separation of human beings from the last common ancestors of human beings and chimpanzees. Significant changes during the evolution were Bipedalism, Sexual Dimorphism, and power of gripping along with brain size.

Mutations: what role do they play in Evolution?

Mutations create a new DNA sequence in a particular gene, thus, producing a new allele. Intra – genic re-combination can also produce new DNA. Sometimes mutations do not produce a detectable effect on the phenotype, and some mutations produce a big change in phenotype by base substitution, deletion, and insertion in genotype. 

How chromosomal alteration signify alteration?

Any change in the chromosome of the parents is passed onto their offsprings, eventually causing changes in a particular population. As a result, a population emerges with that genome, which has a better chance of survival and can adapt better to the changing environment. Overtime genetic make- up changes to that extent, which fits best with the environment.

Role of nature in Evolution:

Darwin proposed the theory of natural selection based on the survival and reproduction of those individuals who could better adapt in the adverse circumstances, leaving more offsprings than their weak peers, causing the traits to increase in subsequent generations. The natural selection actually decided which mutation will be beneficial and survive and which ones will perish. 

Inter – Specific/ Intra – Specific Breeding:

Individuals of some species, when breed, is called Intraspecific Breeding. When breeding occurs between two different species, it is called interspecific breeding. Generally, interspecific hybrids are sterile due to uneven chromosomal pairing. Species are reproductively isolated from each other by strong barriers like the rejection of sperm cells by ovum. Some acts are before fertilization, and some are after it. 

Stages of Human Evolution:

Dryopithecus: – These are ancestors of both men and apes, predominantly herbivores. 

Ramapithecus: – A grassland community with strong canines and robust jaws.

Australopithecus: – erect walking genus which lived on the ground and used stones as their weapons. 

Homo erectus: – they were considered as the missing link between man and apes with high cranial capacities and were characterized to live in communities. 

Homo Sapiens Neanderthalensis: – during evolution, there were two subspecies of Homo sapiens found. Homo sapiens Neanderthal and Homo sapiens with a cranial capacity of 1200 – 1600 cc. 

Homo sapiens: – The modern man with proper chin and rounded skull of cranial capacity of about 1350 cc.

Role of Charles Darwin in Evolution:- 

He gave the theory of natural selection on the origin of species in 1859. He defined evolution as “descent with modification” that explains that species change gradually and give rise to new species in a period of time. 

Scientific classification of all stages: – The first stage appeared when Hominid ancestors migrated out of Africa.

The second stage was of Neanderthals, and the third stage was Atapuerca, who eventually evolved into our modern Human Being. 

Extinct species: Why did they extinct?

The extinction of species is generally due to change in environmental conditions, so the species which adapted well survived and rest were eliminated.   

Is Evolution still ongoing? 

According to DNA’s evolution, we see that Human Evolution is still taking place with accelerated pace causing DNA changes in Human Beings. Survivors are selected by nature, giving better generations onwards. 99.99% of all species that existed on earth are already extinct, and it may happen with Human beings also due to natural disasters or human Causes.  

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